Integrated Biorefineries

This page contains an interactive map that highlights the Bioenergy Technologies Office-funded biorefinery projects from the pilot, demonstration, and commercial scales. Learn more about the Office's integrated biorefinery (IBR) efforts in the IBR Portfolio Overview fact sheet. Scroll below the map to read more about IBRs.

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Map of the United States, showing the locations of integrated biorefinery projects and summary information for each.

(Text-only version)


Sustainable feedstock production includes all of the steps required to produce biomass feedstocks to the point they are ready to be collected or harvested from the field or forest. Feedstock logistics encompasses all of the unit operations necessary to move biomass feedstocks from the land to the biorefinery. Biological matter is used to produce transportation fuels, chemicals, and heat and power. Biofuels Infrastructure moves the fuel from a biorefining plant to the pump. Bioenergy is used to power today's vehicles.

A crucial step in developing the U.S. bioindustry is to establish first-of-a-kind integrated biorefineries that are capable of efficiently converting a broad range of biomass feedstocks into commercially viable biofuels, biopower, and other bioproducts. Integrated biorefineries are similar to conventional refineries in that they produce a range of products to optimize both the use of the feedstock and production economics. Integrated biorefineries use novel technologies and diverse biomass feedstocks—requiring significant investments in research, development, and deployment to reduce costs and improve performance to achieve competitiveness with fossil fuels.

Integrated biorefineries employ various combinations of feedstock and conversion technologies to produce a variety of products, with the main focus on producing biofuels. Co-products can include chemicals (or other materials), animal feed, and heat and power. The renewable feedstocks utilized in integrated biorefineries include non-food sources, including the following:

  • Energy crops, such as switchgrass, miscanthus, willow, and poplar
  • Agricultural, forest, and industrial residues, such as bagasse, stover, straws, forest thinnings, sawdust and paper mill waste
  • Algae and other micro-organisms.

Federal support for first-of-a-kind integrated biorefineries can help validate costs and performance, thus reducing the technical and financial risks associated with new technology deployment. Reduced risks will allow access to private financing, which is necessary to accelerate growth in the U.S. bioindustry. This work supports the national "all-of-the-above" strategy to develop every source of American energy—reducing costs to consumers and improving energy security.