Covered Product Category: Industrial Luminaires
Updated December 2011
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Lighting as a Key Energy Conservation Measure
Facilities with significant potential savings in lighting may be able to bundle lighting upgrades with heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and other energy conservation measures into a Utility Energy Service Contract (UESC) or Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). Because of the substantial cost and energy savings potential, replacing lighting can be a key component in financing facility retrofits. For more information on funding opportunities, visit the FEMP Project Funding Web page.
FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including industrial luminaires, which are a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.
Federal agencies are required by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619), Executive Order 13423, Executive Order 13514, and Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) Subpart 23.2 and 53.223 to specify and buy ENERGY STAR® qualified products or, in categories not included in the ENERGY STAR program, FEMP-designated products, which are among the highest 25% of equivalent products for energy efficiency.
Information about energy-efficient industrial luminaires in this section includes the following:
- Energy Efficiency Requirements
- Determining Cost Effectiveness
- Contracting Considerations
- Buying Energy-Efficient Industrial Luminaires
- Buyer Tips: How to Choose Efficient Products
- For More Information
Energy Efficiency Requirements for Industrial Luminaires
The following table describes the requirements and options that Federal agencies must keep in mind when procuring energy-efficient industrial luminaires, including luminaire efficacy ratings (LER).
|Table 1. Efficiency Requirements for Federal Purchases1|
|Fluorescent T5H0 Lamps|
|Upward Efficiency2||Required Luminaire Efficacy Rating (LER)|
|Lensed Fixture||Open Fixture|
|0%||65 or higher||77 or higher|
|Greater than 0%||67 or higher||80 or higher|
|Fluorescent High Performance T8 Lamps|
|Upward Efficiency2||Required Luminaire Efficacy Rating (LER)|
|Lensed Fixture||Open Fixture|
|0%||73 or higher||88 or higher|
|Greater than 0%||76 or higher||91 or higher|
|Metal Halide Lamps|
|Upward Efficiency2||Lamp Wattage||Required Luminaire Efficacy Rating (LER)|
|Closed Fixture||Open Fixture|
|0%||150–399||50 or higher||49 or higher|
|400–999||62 or higher||69 or higher|
|≥ 1000||84 or higher||76 or higher|
|1%–10%||150–399||68 or higher||49 or higher|
|400–999||73 or higher||75 or higher|
|≥ 1000||71 or higher||96 or higher|
|11%–20%||150–399||70 or higher||55 or higher|
|400–999||76 or higher||81 or higher|
|≥ 1000||82 or higher||87 or higher|
|20%||150–399||76 or higher||80 or higher|
|400–999||76 or higher||70 or higher|
|≥ 1000||87 or higher||93 or higher|
1 Requirements as of November 1, 2011.
2 Upward efficiency is the portion of light directed up by the fixture. Both high-bay and low-bay high-intensity discharge luminaires are available with opaque reflectors, which direct all or most of the light downward, and with transparent refractors, which direct some light up. Fluorescent luminaires are available with openings that direct some light up.
Determining Cost Effectiveness
An efficient product is cost effective when the energy cost savings over its functional lifetime exceed any initial incremental cost above a less-efficient model (i.e., energy cost savings is greater than additional costs at time of purchase). Federal purchasers may assume that ENERGY STAR–qualified and products meeting FEMP-designated efficiency requirements are life-cycle cost effective. However, users wishing to determine cost effectiveness for their application may do so using the cost effectiveness example in table 2.
Products meeting FEMP-designated efficiency requirements or ENERGY STAR performance specifications may not be life-cycle cost effective in certain low-use applications, such as when a device is purchased for backup purposes and will remain in off mode for most of its useful life. For most other average or high-use applications, purchasers will find that energy-efficient products have the lowest life-cycle cost.
|Table 2. Cost Effectiveness Example|
|Performance||Less-Efficient Model Metal Halide||Required Level Metal Halide 150–399 W Closed Fixture||Required Level Fluorescent HP T8 Lensed Fixture|
|Luminaire Efficacy Ratings||40||68||76|
|Number of Lamps||1||1||4|
|Initial Luminaire Light Output (lumens)||11,800||15,776||10,790|
|Lifetime Average Light Output (lumens)||9,558||12,621||10,344|
|Power Input (watts)||295||232||142|
|Annual Energy Use (kilowatt hours)||1,062||835||511|
|Annual Energy Cost||$96||$75||$46|
|Lifetime Energy Cost||$1,108||$871||$533|
|Lifetime Energy Cost Savings||-||$237||$338|
Using the Cost-Effectiveness Table
In the example shown above, a fluorescent lensed luminaire with upward efficiency greater than 0% and a four-lamp instant start ballast meeting the required luminaire efficacy ratings of 76 or higher is cost-effective if its purchase price is no more than $338 higher than that of a less-efficient model metal halide luminaire.
Calculating Lifetime Energy Cost Savings
To calculate lifetime energy cost savings for a different electricity price, multiply the savings in the above table by this ratio:
(Your price in ¢/kWh) ÷ 9.0¢/kWh)
Similarly, for different hours of operation, multiply savings by this ratio:
(Your annual hours of use) ÷ (3,600 annual hours of use)
Energy use and performance of an industrial luminaire depends on the luminaire efficiency and the performance of its lamp(s) and ballast(s). This example shows the annual and lifetime energy costs for fluorescent lensed luminaires with greater than 0% upward efficiency using instant-start fluorescent ballasts driving four F32T8 lamps, comparing the energy cost of the less-efficient model efficiency level with the energy cost of the required efficiency levels. The less-efficient model efficiency is represented by a luminaire using a metal halide lamp.
For both examples, lifetime energy cost is the sum of the discounted value of annual energy costs, based on 3,600 operating hours per year and an assumed luminaire lifetime of 15 years. The assumed electricity price is 9¢ per kWh, the Federal average electricity price in the United States. Future electricity price trends and a discount rate of 3.0% are based on Federal guidelines effective from April 2010 to March 2011.
These requirements apply to all forms of procurement, including construction guide specifications and project specifications; renovation, repair, maintenance, and energy service contracts; lease agreements; acquisitions made using purchase cards; and solicitations for offers. Energy efficiency requirements should be included in both the evaluation criteria of solicitations and the evaluations of solicitation responses.
Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Part 23.206 requires Federal agencies to insert the clause at FAR section 52.223-15 in solicitations and contracts that deliver, acquire, furnish, or specify energy-consuming products. FEMP recommends that agencies incorporate efficiency requirements into both the technical specification and evaluation sections of solicitations. Agencies may claim an exception to these requirements through a written finding that no ENERGY STAR–qualified or FEMP-designated product is available to meet the functional requirements, or that no such product is life-cycle cost effective for the specific application. Additional information on Federal requirements is available.
Buying Energy-Efficient Industrial Luminaires
The Federal supply sources for energy-efficient industrial luminaires are the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) and the General Services Administration (GSA). GSA offers them on Schedule 62-II, as well as through its on-line shopping network, GSA Advantage!
When contracting or buying from a commercial source, specify or select a luminaire with a luminaire efficacy rating (LER) that meets or exceeds those shown in the Efficiency Requirements table for that luminaire type, ballast type, and number of lamps. Specify a luminaire type appropriate for your application, noting that LER is most useful in comparing efficacies between luminaires of the same type.
Agencies must use ENERGY STAR–qualified and FEMP-designated efficiency requirements for all procurements of energy-consuming products and systems including guide and project specifications, and construction, renovation, and service contracts. These efficiency requirements should also be used in evaluating responses to solicitations. In contracts and solicitations, agencies must specify that industrial luminaires meet or exceed the performance levels shown in the Efficiency Requirements table.
Agencies can claim an exception to these requirements through a written finding that no ENERGY STAR-qualified or FEMP-designated product is available to meet the functional requirements, or that no such product is life-cycle cost effective for the specific application.
Buyer Tips: How to Choose Efficient Products
Luminaire efficacy ratings should be readily available in manufacturers' literature. If they are not, ask your supplier for luminaire efficacy rating values. If the luminaire efficacy rating is not available, buyers may calculate the rating using this formula:
Luminaire efficacy ratings = (luminaire efficiency x total rated lamp lumens x ballast factor) ÷ luminaire watts input
Luminaire efficiency, total rated lamp lumens, ballast factor, and luminaire watts input (input watts) may typically be found in manufacturers' product specification sheets and photometric reports.
Industrial luminaires are often referred to as "high-bay" luminaires. While the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) defines high-bay as over 25 feet and low-bay as under 25 feet, fixtures designated for high-bay and low-bay applications are often used interchangeably. Luminaires of this type are also used in non-industrial applications, including warehouses, hangars, maintenance facilities, retail stores, gymnasiums, and other large, high-ceiling spaces.
Fluorescent high-performance T8 or T5HO systems should be considered for high-bay and low-bay lighting applications because they can be more cost-effective than metal halide systems over their system life. Pulse-start metal halide (high-intensity discharge lamp) systems are a good alternative when it is desirable to have a smaller light source or to direct more light upward. High-pressure sodium systems have been widely used in industrial and outdoor applications, but they do not meet the visual performance requirements of most high-bay and low-bay applications.
The availability of pulse-start metal halide and high-efficiency fluorescent systems has substantially diminished the traditional high-pressure sodium system advantages of long life and high efficiency compared to standard metal halide or fluorescent systems. In circumstances where it is still desirable to use high-pressure sodium systems, they are required to meet the corresponding metal halide system requirements. Other high-intensity discharge lamp types, such as mercury-vapor and low-pressure sodium lamps have very poor color rendition. Mercury-vapor lamps are much less efficient than other high-intensity discharge lamp types.
For More Information
The following resources provide additional information surrounding the purchase of efficient products:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory