Resource Assessment and Characterization
A crucial factor in the development, siting, and operation of a wind farm is the ability to assess and characterize available wind resources. The Wind Program supports efforts to accurately define, measure, and forecast the nation's land-based and offshore wind resources. More accurate prediction and measurement of wind speed and direction allow wind farms to supply clean, renewable power to businesses and homeowners at lower costs.
A technical wind resource assessment completed by the Wind Program in 2009 estimated that the land-based wind energy potential for the contiguous United States is 10,500 gigawatt (GW) capacity at 80-meters (m) and 12,000 GW capacity at 100-m heights, assuming a capacity factor of at least 30%. A 2010 report estimates the technical offshore wind energy potential to be 4,150 GW. The estimate was calculated from the total offshore area within 50 nautical miles of shore in areas where average annual wind speeds are at least 7-m per second at a height of 90-m.
Land-Based and Offshore Wind Resource Map
The Energy Department, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and AWS Truepower provide the wind resource map below that shows land-based with offshore resources. This map is the first to provide wind developers and policy makers with a seamless representation of the wind resources estimated at a 100-m height for all 50 states—the 48 contiguous states, Alaska, and Hawaii—as well as offshore resources up to 50 nautical miles from shore.
The Energy Department's Wind Program works with other government agencies, universities and industry members to assess and characterize U.S. wind resources. Assessment results are then made publicly available, enabling the wind industry to identify areas best suited for the development of future land-based and offshore wind farms.
Weather-Dependent and Oceanic Renewable Energy Resource Characterization
In Fiscal Year 2011, the Energy Department's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for Weather-Dependent and Oceanic Renewable Energy Resource Characterization to enhance the accuracy, precision, and completeness of resource information for wind and water energy technologies. In combining the technical expertise of the Energy Department with NOAA's advanced capabilities in the prediction, mapping, and forecasting of oceanic and atmospheric conditions, the two agencies work to develop the safe and efficient use of weather-dependent and oceanic renewable energy technologies.
Coordinated Deployment of Offshore Wind and Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf
In 2010, the Energy Department's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy signed an MOU with the Interior Department's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management for the Coordinated Deployment of Offshore Wind and Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf. The MOU established working groups of agency staff to work together on addressing specific topic areas necessary for the deployment of offshore energy systems. The Resource Assessment and Design Conditions Working Group coordinates research activities to increase our understanding of core atmospheric and oceanic conditions relevant to offshore renewable energy.
Involved federal partners: U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Department of Defense, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, and Executive Office of the President
Wind Forecast Improvement Project
The Wind Program and NOAA co-fund a forecast improvement project that uses targeted wind observations and advanced forecast models and algorithms to help manage the contribution of wind energy to electricity grids.
Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions
The offshore energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic information to evaluate the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore energy project sites. The Wind Program is working to address these needs through data dissemination, instrumentation and observational improvements, and next-generation tool development. DOE's public meeting on Resource Assessment and Design Conditions was the first step in addressing these information gaps and helped to shape a path forward for future priorities.
As a subsequent step, the program funded AWS Truepower to develop a Web-based, searchable, national met-ocean wind energy resource and design conditions data inventory, the U.S. Met-Ocean Data Center for Offshore Renewable Energy or USMODCORE. The data inventory incorporates resources from federal agencies, state governments, regional alliances, research institutions, commercial projects, and international organizations.
Complex Flow Characterization
Wind farm underperformance, currently as high as 20% in some cases, presents a large opportunity for the Wind Program to increase the performance of wind farms and reduce the cost of wind power. To address this opportunity, the Program is studying the multi-scale aerodynamics impacting wind plant performance in modern land-based and offshore wind farms. The Program's complex flow research spans several spatial scales, from global and regional wind flows to flows into individual wind turbines and rotor blades. The Program seeks to greatly improve the understanding of the fundamental physics underlying aerodynamic models at all scales and is also collecting experimental data to validate existing and future models. In support of these efforts, the program organized a two-day workshop in early 2012 to identify research needs and challenges relating to the complex flow of wind into and out of the wind turbine environment, as well as the resulting impacts on the mechanical workings of individual wind turbines. The results of this workshop are documented in the Complex Flow Workshop Report.